Using animals in research raises many ethical questions. May we, as humans, use animals to suit our purposes? Is it ethically defensible not to use all available knowledge in attempting to cure diseases?
The 3R concept was developed as a means to address ethical issues concerning animal research. The three Rs stand for replacement, refinement, and reduction.
In Sweden, every permit issued to conduct research on animals is based on ethical evaluation. The Ethical Committees on Animal Experiments include scientific and lay representatives who weigh the benefits of research against its effects on animal subjects.